Article published in:
Outside the Clause: Form and function of extra-clausal constituents
Edited by Gunther Kaltenböck, Evelien Keizer and Arne Lohmann
[Studies in Language Companion Series 178] 2016
► pp. 97122


Aijmer, Karin
2002English Discourse Particles: Evidence from a Corpus [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 10]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2013Understanding Pragmatic Markers. A Variational Pragmatic Approach. Edinburgh: EUP.Google Scholar
2015aPragmatic markers. In Corpus Pragmatics, Christoph Rühlemann & Karin Aijmer (eds), 195–218. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2015b What I mean is - what is it doing in conversational interaction? The European English Messenger 24: 29–36.Google Scholar
Andersen, Gisle
2001Pragmatic Markers and Sociolinguistic Variation: A Relevance- Theoretic Approach to the Language of Adolescents [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 84]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Archer, Dawn, Aijmer, Karin & Wichmann, Anne
2012Pragmatics. An Advanced Resource Book for Students. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Biber, Douglas, Johansson, Stig, Leech, Geoffrey, Conrad, Susan & Finegan, Edward
1999Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
Bortfeld, Heather, Leon, Silvia D., Bloom, Jonathan E., Schober, Michael. F. & Brennan, Susan E.
2001Disfluency rates in conversation: Effects of age, relationship, topic, role, and gender. Language and Speech 44:123–147. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brinton, Laurel J.
1996Pragmatic Markers in English. Grammaticalization and Discourse Functions. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2008The Comment Clause in English. Syntactic Origins and Pragmatic Development. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chafe, Wallace
1980Some reasons for hesitating. In Temporal Variables in Speech: Studies in Honour of Frieda Goldman-Eisler, Hans W. Dechert & Manfred Raupach (eds), 169–180. The Hague: Mouton. Reprinted 1985 in Deborah Tannen & Muriel Saville-Troike (eds), Perspectives on Silence, 77–89. Norwood NJ: Ablex. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Clark, Herbert H. & Wasow, Thomas
1998Repeating words in spontaneous speech. Cognitive Psychology 37: 201–242. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Clark, Herbert H. & Fox Tree, Jean E.
2002Using uh and um in spontaneous speaking. Cognition 84: 73–111. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Clayman, Steven E.
2013Turn-constructional units and the transition-relevance place. In The Handbook of Conversation Analysis, Tanya Stivers & Jack Sidnell (eds), 150-166. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
D'Arcy, Alexandra
2007 Like and language ideology. Disentangling fact from fiction. American Speech 82: 386–419. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
De Leeuw, Esther
2007Hesitation markers in English, German, and Dutch. Journal of Germanic Linguistics 19: 85–114. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Du Bois, John W., Schuetze-Coburn, Stephan, Cumming, Susanna & Paolino, Danae
1993Outline of discourse transcription. In Talking Data. Transcription and Coding in Discourse Research, Jane A. Edwards & Martin D. Lampert (eds), 45–89. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Edmondson, Willis
1981Spoken Discourse. A Model for Analysis. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Erard, Michael
2007Um... Slips, Stumbles, and Verbal Blunders, and What They Mean. New York NY: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
Erman, Britt
1987Pragmatic Expressions in English [Stockholm Studies in English]. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.Google Scholar
Faerch, Claus & Kasper, Gabriele
1982Phatic, metalingual and metacommunicative functions in discourse: Gambits and repairs. In Impromptu Speech: A Symposium. Meddelanden från Stiftelsens för Åbo Akademi Forskningsinstitut 78, Nils Erik Enkvist (ed.), 71–103. Åbo: Åbo Akademi.Google Scholar
Fischer, Kerstin
2000From Cognitive Semantics to Lexical Pragmatics: The Functional Polysemy of Discourse Particles. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2006Frames, constructions, and invariant meanings: The functional polysemy of discourse particles. In Approaches to Discourse Particles, Kerstin Fischer (ed.), 427–447. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Gilquin, Gaëtanelle
2008Hesitation markers among EFL learners: Pragmatic deficiency or difference? In Pragmatics and Corpus Linguistics. A Mutualistic Entente, Jesús Romero-Trillo (ed.), 119–149. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Gilquin, Gaëtanelle & De Cock, Sylvie
2011Errors and disfluencies in spoken corpora. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 16(2):141–172. Reprinted 2013 in Errors and Disfluencies in Spoken Corpora, Gaëtanelle Gilquin & Sylvie De Cock (eds). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Goffman, Erwin
1981Forms of Talk. Philadelphia PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Goldman-Eisler, Freda
1961A comparative study of two hesitation phenomena. Language and Speech 4:18–26. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Götz, Sandra
2013Fluency in Native and Nonnative English Speech [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 53]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Green, Georgia M.
2006Discourse particles and the symbiosis of natural language processing and basic research. In Drawing the Boundaries of Meaning. Neo-Gricean studies in pragmatics and semantics in honor of Laurence R. Horn [Studies in Language Companion Series 80], Betty J. Birner & Gregory Ward (eds), 117–135. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jucker, Andreas
1993The discourse marker well. A relevance-theoretical account. Journal of Pragmatics 19: 435–452. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2014 Uh and um as planners in the Corpus of Historical American English . In Developments in English: Expanding Electronic Evidence, Irma Taavitsainen, Merja Kytö, Claudia Claridge & Jeremy Smith (eds), 162-177. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kjellmer, Göran
2003Hesitation. In defence of ER and ERM. English Studies 84:170–198. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lester, Nicholas
2013It’s, uh, complicated: Modeling uh and um as functions of difficulty and complexity. In Paper presented at the Cognition and Language Workshop (CLaW 2013) . Santa Barbara, CA.
Levinson, Stephen C.
1983Pragmatics. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
2013Action formation and ascription. In The Handbook of Conversation Analysis, Tanya Stivers & Jack Sidnell (eds), 103–130. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Maclay, Howard & Osgood, Charles E.
1959Hesitation phenomena in spontaneous English speech. Word 15:19–44. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
MacWhinney, Brian & Osser, Harry
1977Verbal planning functions in children's speech. Child Development 48: 978–985. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mey, Jacob
2001[1993]Pragmatics, 2nd edn. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Miller, Jim & Weinert, Regina
1995The function of LIKE in dialogue. Journal of Pragmatics 23: 365–393. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Norrick, Neal R.
2015Interjections. In Corpus Pragmatics. A Handbook, Karin Aijmer & Christoph Rühlemann (eds), 291–325. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
O'Connell, Daniel C. & Kowal, Sabine
2004The history of research on the filled pause as evidence of the written language bias in linguistics (Linell, 1982). Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 33: 459–474. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2005Uh and Um revisited: Are they interjections for signaling delay? Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 34: 555–576. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Östman, Jan-Ola
1982The symbiotic relationship between pragmatic particles and impromptu speech. In Impromptu Speech: A Symposium, Nils Erik Enkvist (ed.), 147–177. Turku: Åbo Akademi.Google Scholar
Schegloff, Emanuel A.
1993Reflections on quantification in the study of conversation. Research on Language and Social Interaction 26: 99–128. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2007Sequence Organization in Interaction: A Primer in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2010Some other uh(m)s . Discourse Processes 47: 30–174. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schegloff, Emanuel A., Jefferson, Gail & Sacks, Harvey
1977The preference for self-correction in the organization of repair in conversation. Language 55: 361–382. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schiffrin, Deborah
1987Discourse Markers. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Shillcock, Richard, Kirby, Simon, McDonald, Scott & Brew, Chris
2001Filled pauses and their status in the mental lexicon. Paper presented at DiSS '01 (Disfluencies in Spontaneous Speech) August 29-31, Edinburgh.
Schneider, Ulrike
2012Do uh and um have different meanings? A clustering approach using dendrograms. Poster presented at DGKL (German Society of Cognitive Linguistics) Conference in Freiburg.
2014Frequency, Hesitations and Chunks. A Usage-based Study of Chunking in English. PhD dissertation, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg in Breisgau.Google Scholar
Schourup, Lawrence C.
1985Common Discourse Particles in English Conversation. New York NY: Garland.Google Scholar
Schourup, Lawrence
2001Rethinking well . Journal of Pragmatics 33:1025–1060. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Siegel, Muffy
2002 Like: The discourse particle and semantics. Journal of Semantics 19: 35–71. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stenström, Anna-Brita
1990Pauses in monologue and dialogue. In The London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English. Description and Research, Jan Svartvik (ed.), 211-252. Lund: LUP.Google Scholar
Svartvik, Jan
1980 Well in conversation. In Studies in English Linguistics for Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech & Jan Svartvik (eds), 167–177. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Tottie, Gunnel
2011Uh and um as sociolinguistic markers in British English. The International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 16(2):173–196. Reprinted 2013 in Errors and Disfluencies in Spoken Corpora, Gaëtanelle Gilquin & Sylvie De Cock (eds). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2014On the use of uh and um in American English. Functions of Language 21: 6–29. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2015aTurn management and “filled pauses”, uh and um . In Corpus Pragmatics. A Handbook, Karin Aijmer & Christoph Rühlemann (eds), 448–483. Cambridge: CUP. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2015b Uh and um in British and American English: Are they words? Evidence from co-occurrence with pauses. In Linguistic Variation: Confronting Fact and Theory, Nathalie Dion, André Lapierre & Rena Torres Cacoullos (eds), 38-55. New York NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
2105cFrom pause to word: Uh and um in written language. Paper presented at ICAME 36 , May 27–31, Trier.
Forthcoming. Uh or um – are there functional differences?
Wieling, Martijn, Grieve, Jack, Bouma, Gosse, Fruehwald, Joseph, Coleman, John & Liberman, Mark
2016Variation and change in the use of hesitation markers in Germanic languages. Language Dynamics and Change.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Cited by 2 other publications

Lingard, Lorelei
2019. Beyond the default colon: Effective use of quotes in qualitative research. Perspectives on Medical Education 8:6  pp. 360 ff. Crossref logo
Revis, Melanie & Tobias Bernaisch
2020. The pragmatic nativisation of pauses in Asian Englishes. World Englishes 39:1  pp. 135 ff. Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 29 january 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.