Chapter published in:Language Variation - European Perspectives VII: Selected papers from the Ninth International Conference on Language Variation in Europe (ICLaVE 9), Malaga, June 2017
Edited by Juan-Andrés Villena-Ponsoda, Francisco Díaz Montesinos, Antonio-Manuel Ávila-Muñoz and Matilde Vida-Castro
[Studies in Language Variation 22] 2019
► pp. 204–215
Dialect levelling or shift
Lexical outcomes of Štokavian-Čakavian contact in Dalmatia
South Čakavian dialects spoken in Dalmatia, the coastal part of Croatia, are characterised by a high level of innovation coupled with heavy Romance influence, which is mostly discernible at the lexical and, less often, at the syntactic level. Despite their continued presence, dialect levelling led to the decline in the quantity and frequency of locally specific Romance elements. In the paper we examine whether and to what extent four Čakavian varieties are affected by levelling leading to either the Regional Dalmatian koine (RD) or a shift in the direction of the Standard Croatian variety (SC), and whether there are differences in that respect between the varieties under research. In order to determine the degree of advergence toward SC or RD, we examine the reported use and familiarity with lexical variants of Romance origin by means of apparent time analysis, followed by a comparative analysis of the collected data in four originally Čakavian settings. Our research reveals that differential resistance to shift and levelling of certain parts of the lexicon can be observed, that there are preferred models in the processes of levelling and change, and that the motives for maintenance and shift found at the lexical level depend on extralinguistic factors including geographical, social and linguistic isolation of certain Čakavian varieties.
Keywords: Dalmatia, Croatian, Regional Dalmatian koine, Čakavian, Štokavian, Romance loanwords
Published online: 12 December 2019
Auer, Peter, Birgit, Barden, and Beate Grosskopf
Auer, Peter, Frans Hinskens, and Paul Kerswill
Brozović, Dalibor, and Pavle Ivić
Field, Fredric W.
2008 “Loanword Typology: Steps Toward a Systematic Cross-Linguistic Study of Lexical Borrowability.” In Aspects of Language Contact: New Theoretical, Methodological and Empirical Findings with Special Focus on Romancisation Processes, ed. by Thomas Stolz, Dik Bakker, and Rosa Salas Palomo, 43–62. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kerswill, Paul, and Ann Williams
2016 “Osservazioni su una storia romanza dei contatti linguistici interadriatici [Observations on a Romance history of interadriatic linguistic contacts]”. In Relazioni linguistiche. Strutture, rapporti, genealogie [Linguistic relationships. Structures, relations and genealogies], ed. by Martin, Becker, and Ludwig, Fesenmeier, 185–210. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
2005 Analiza temeljnog i kulturnog leksika viških govora i njihov odnos prema drugim istraživanim govorima istočnog Jadrana [Analysis of basic and cultural vocabulary of the varieties on the Island of Vis and their relationship to the previously studied dialects on the eastern Adriatic coast]. Zagreb: University of Zagreb [Unpublished manuscript: pre-doctoral thesis].
Šimičić, Lucija, Peter Houtzagers, Anita Sujoldžić, and John Nerbonne
Šimičić, Lucija, and Anita Sujoldžić
2009 “Istraživanje temeljnog i kulturnog leksika u naseljima otoka Visa: prostorni i generacijski aspekti [The study of basic and cultural vocabulary on the Island of Vis: spatial and generational aspects]”. In Destinacije čežnje, lokacije samoće: Uvidi u kulturu i razvojne mogućnosti hrvatskih otoka [Desired Destinations, Lonely Locations: Insights in Culture and Developement of the Croatian Islands], ed. by Ines Prica, and Željka Jelavić, 189–202. Zagreb: Hrvatsko etnološko društvo.
2012 “Između arhaičnog (romanskog) i standardnog (hrvatskog) jezičnog elementa: koineizacija otočnih varijeteta [Between the archaic(Romance) and standard (Croatian) linguistic element: koineization of island varieties]”. In Zbornik radova Aktualna istraživanja u primjenjenoj lingvistici [Contemporary research in applied linguistics: The proceedings], ed. by Leonard, Pon, Vladimir Karabalić, and Sanja Cimer, 171–184. Osijek: HDPL.