Subject expression in Spanish
Contrasts between native and non-native speakers for first and second-person singular referents
Research on variation demonstrates that analyses of frequency and predictors of use contribute to our understanding of languages. Investigations of subject expression in Spanish in particular have identified differences across person and number of the verb that suggest that linguists should focus their analyses exclusively on a single category of that variable (e.g., Torres-Cacoullos and Travis 2010). The current paper examines the subject-expression forms produced in first- and second-person contexts in separate analyses, exploring the degree to which patterns of use generalize across verbal person categories. Data from 32 sociolinguistic interviews with native and non-native speakers of Spanish in the same speech community were coded for independent linguistic variables, such as switch reference, perseveration, tense, mood and aspect of the verb form, verbal negation, presence of object pronouns, specificity and reference cohesiveness. Separate multivariate analyses for first- and second-person referents show subtle differences between NSs and NNSs.
Keywords: Spanish, verbal subjects, second language
Published online: 14 April 2016
Cited by other publications
de Prada Pérez, Ana & Nick Feroce
Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura, Kimberly L. Geeslin, Danielle Daidone, Bret Linford, Avizia Yim Long, Ian Michalski & Megan Solon
Long, Avizia Yim & Kimberly L. Geeslin
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 15 january 2021. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.
Bayley, Robert, and Lucinda Pease-Alvarez
1988 “La posición del sujeto en el español de Caracas: un análisis de los factores lingüísticos y extralingüísticos [Subject Position in Caracas Spanish: An Analysis of the Linguistic and Extralinguistic Factors].” In Studies in Caribbean Spanish Dialectology, ed. by Robert M. Hammond and Melvyn C. Resnick, 13–23. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Blackwell, Sarah E., and Margaret Lubbers Quesada
Bock, J. Kathryn
Bowles, Melissa, and Silvina Montrul
Cameron, Richard, and Nydia Flores-Ferrán
Geeslin, Kimberly L.
2013 “Future Directions in the Acquisition of Variable Structures: The Role of Individual Lexical Items in Second Language Spanish.” In Selected Proceedings of the 15th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, ed. by Chad Howe, Margaret Lubbers, and Sarah Blackwell, 187–204. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Geeslin, Kimberly, and Aarnes Gudmestad
2011 “Using Sociolinguistic Analyses of Discourse-Level Features to Expand Research on L2 Variation in Forms of Spanish Subject Expression.” In Selected Proceedings of the 2009 Second Language Research Forum: Diverse Contributions to SLA, ed. by Luke Plonsky and Maren Schierloh, 16–30. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Geeslin, Kimberly L., Stephen Fafulas, and Jason Killam
2012 “The Acquisition of Narrative Sentence Structure: An Exploration of Syntactic Development in L2 Spanish.” Paper presented at Second Language Research Forum 2012 , Pittsburgh, PA.
Gudmestad, Aarnes, and Kimberly Geeslin
2010 “Exploring the Roles of Redundancy and Ambiguity in Variable Subject Expression: A Comparison of Native and Non-Native Speakers.” In Selected Proceedings from the 12th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, ed. by Claudia Borgonovo, Manuel Español-Echevarría, and Philippe Prévost, 270–283. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Gudmestad, Aarnes, Leanna House, and Kimberly Geeslin
Gundel, Jeanette K., Nancy Hedberg, and Ron Zacharski
2011 “An Interlanguage Analysis of Differential Object Marking in L2 Spanish.” Indiana University dissertation.
2012 “The Role of Frequency in the Expression of Subject Forms in L2 Spanish.” Paper presented at Hispanic Linguistics Symposium , Gainesville, FL.
Montrul, Silvina, and Celeste Rodríguez Louro
Orozco, Rafael, and Bailey Nunez
2012 “¿Todos juntos o cada uno por separado? ‘All (SPPs) Together or Each One Separately?’: A Pronominal Expression Study.” Paper presented at the New Ways of Analyzing Variation , Bloomington, Indiana.
Otheguy, Ricardo, and Ana Zentella
Quesada, Margaret Lubbers, and Sarah E. Blackwell
2009 “The L2 Acquisition of Null and Overt Spanish Subject Pronouns: A Pragmatic Approach.” In Selected Proceedings of the 11th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, ed. by Joseph Collentine, Maryellen García, Barbara Lafford, and Francisco Marcos Marín, 117–130. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
Rothman, Jason, and Michael Iverson, M.
Schwenter, Scott A., and Rena Torres Cacoullos
Serrano, María José
Torres Cacoullos, Rena, and Catherine Travis
2005 “The yo-yo Effect: Priming in Subject Expression in Colombian Spanish.” In Theoretical and Experimental Approaches to Romance Linguistics: Selected Papers from the 34th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), ed. by Randall S. Gess and Edward J. Rubin, 329–349. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.