Translating in Linguistically Diverse Societies
Translation policy in the United Kingdom
This work is the first book-length treatment on translation policy. Nearly everywhere in the world, populations are multilingual and mobile; consequently, language policies developed by the authorities must include choices about the use or non-use of translation. This book recognizes that these choices (or the absence thereof) become policies of their own in terms of translation. It builds upon the work of scholars in the fields of translation studies and language planning and policy in order to develop a new theoretical perspective on translation policy. In essence, the book proposes that translation policy can be understood as the management, practice, and beliefs surrounding the use of translation. The book deals with these issues under European and international law and then explores such management, practice, and beliefs in the UK, as a case study. Ultimately, the reader can find a fuller appreciation of both the importance and complexity of translation policy.
[Benjamins Translation Library, 125] 2016. xiv, 289 pp.
Publishing status: Available
© John Benjamins
Table of Contents
Acronyms used in this study
1. Some history between language and state: An introduction to a study on translation policy
2. Translation anyone?: A look at the debate on language rights
3. Going about it: Method and rationale
4. From the Geneva Conventions to the latest EU directives: State obligation to translate under international law
5. A kingdom of English and many other languages as well: Linguistic background of the United Kingdom
6. Broadly speaking: Legislation and policy that affect translation generally in the United Kingdom
7. On the local front: Translation in government in the United Kingdom
8. Health in any language: Translation in healthcare in the United Kingdom
9. May it please the court: Translation in judicial settings in the United Kingdom
10. So what does this all mean?: A conclusion to a study on translation policy
“This is a pioneering investigation into translation policy, the often overlooked branch of what James Holmes called Applied Translation Studies. With both legal and translation research expertise, González Núñez is ideally qualified to stake out the ground in this increasingly significant field. I predict that the book will become a classic reference.”
Andrew Chesterman, University of Helsinki
“This a highly original and thorough exploration of the role of translation in interactions between the citizen and the state. At once informative and provocative, it combines insights from translation studies, sociolinguistics, political philosophy, and legal scholarship. It traces translation policies from the international and European to the national and local levels, responding to the ethical call for a “more just system” when dealing with translation for minorities. González Núñez addresses issues of high political and societal relevance with a wealth of detailed information on how the highest abstract ideals flounder in local realities.”
Anthony Pym, Universitat Rovira i Virgili
“This is an original study of translation policy in the United Kingdom with implications that go beyond the borders of that country since it offers a fresh understanding of the intimate interplay between translation and human rights obligations. Impressively documented, its wide range from international law to local governance makes it an important reference for scholars and non-scholars alike.”
Fernand de Varennes, Université de Moncton
“This is the very first book to focus on translation policy as part of language policy. From an interdisciplinary viewpoint (combining law, political science, economics and translation studies), the author analyzes the role played by translation in the integration of linguistic minorities in the UK. The result is a groundbreaking book that offers key insights for scholars and policy makers alike and that opens promising avenues for interdisciplinary collaboration between Translation Studies and Language Policy and Planning.”
Reine Meylaerts, KU Leuven
“This volume is a valuable contribution in a field that is still largely unexplored: Translation Policy. The author examines with rigour a complex issue, in which Translation Studies intersect with Law, Economy, Politics and Language Policy. The wealth of sources used and the precision in the analysis of the case studies make this a fruitful book, which without doubt will inspire scholars in various areas and hopefully also many policymakers.”
Oscar Diaz Fouces, Universidade de Vigo
“In communication across languages, we can either converge on one language, or we can resort to translation. González Núñez’s book is the first comprehensive study of translation policy. He argues that translation plays a beneficial role for immigrant integration, and emphasizes its justification more generally. This is a groundbreaking work and essential reading for any student of language policy and translation.”
Helder de Schutter, KU Leuven
“Claims to be the first to be devoted to translation policy. That makes it indispensable for language libraries.”
Marjory A. Bancroft, in INTERSECT: A Newsletter about Interpreting, Language and Culture", September 30, 2016
“The book effectively addresses a significant gap in our understanding, acknowledged in the decision by the European Language Council to establish a working party on this very topic, which has begun the detailed work of cataloguing the diverse rights and policies in place across the continent. [...] Two very positive features of González Núñez’s contribution are: first, that it is likely to inspire similar research on other linguistically diverse societies, opening the way for new international comparative perspectives; and second, that it outlines critically the research approach he adopted, effectively providing a suitable toolkit for any such further studies.”
Joanna Drugan, University of East Anglia, in Target 31:1 (2019)
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2013b “2011 Census: Language Used at Home Other than English (Detailed)”. http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/censusresults/release2a/rel2A_Language_detailed_Scotland.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2013c “Table KS206SC – Language”. http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/censusresults/release2a/councilarea/KS206SC_CA.xls. Visited June 2015.
Newport City Council
2011 “Accessible Communications Guide”. http://www.newport.gov.uk/stellent/groups/public/documents/policies_and_procedures/cont132452.pdf. Visited June 2015.
NHS Direct Wales
2014 “Using Language Translation Service”. http://www.nhsdirect.wales.nhs.uk/aboutus/languagetranslationservice/. Visited June 2015.
2001 “Fair for All: Summary and Recommendations”. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/159176/0043303.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2012 “Your Health, Your Rights: The Charter of Patient Rights and Responsibilities”. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0040/00402729.pdf. Visited June 2015.
Nic Craith, Máiréad
Nic Shuibhne, Niamh
2012 “Alternative Languages”. http://www.nidirect.gov.uk/alternative-languages. Visited June 2015.
Northern Ireland Assembly
2008 “Official Report”. http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/Assembly-Business/Official-Report/Committee-Minutes-of-Evidence/Session-2007-2008/February-2008/Foras-na-Gaeilge/. Visited June 2015.
Northern Ireland Courts and Tribunals Service
2012a “Interpreter and Translation Service”. http://www.courtsni.gov.uk/en-GB/Services/Interpreteration-Services/Pages/default.aspx. Visited June 2015.
2012b “Interpreter and Translation Services Quarterly Bulletin. Period: July-September 2012”. http://www.courtsni.gov.uk/en-GB/Publications/Targets_and_Performance/Documents/tp-q212-interpreters/p_tp_QuartInterpretReportQ3-12.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2014 “Interpreter and Translation Services Quarterly Bulletin”. http://www.courtsni.gov.uk/en-GB/Services/Interpreteration-Services/Quarterly-Bulletins/Pages/default.aspx. Visited June 2015.
Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission
2008 “A Bill of Rights for Northern Ireland: Advice to the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland”. http://www.nihrc.org/documents/bill%20of%20rights/bill-of-rights-for-northern-ireland-advice-to-secretary-state-2008.pdf. Visited June 2015.
Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency
2012 “Census 2011: Key Statistics for Northern Ireland”. http://www.nisra.gov.uk/Census/key_report_2011.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2013a “Table QS216NI. Knowledge of Irish – Full detail”. http://www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk/Download/Census%202011_Excel/2011/QS216NI.xls. Visited May 2014.
2013b “Table QS217NI. Knowledge of Ulster Scots – Full detail”. http://www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk/Download/Census%202011_Excel/2011/QS217NI.xls. Visited May 2014.
2013c “Table KS209NI. Knowledge of Ulster Scots (Administrative Geographies)”. http://www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk/Download/Census%202011/QS213NI%2010.xlsx. Visited May 2014.
2013d “Table QS210NI. Main Language – Full Detail”. http://www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk/Download/Census%202011_Excel/2011/QS210NI.xls. Visited May 2014.
2014 “Table KS209NI. Knowledge of Irish (Administrative Geographies)”. http://www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk/Download/Census%202011/KS209NI%2010.xlsx. Visited May 2014.
2013 “Naturalising Newham: Radical Plan to Boost Integration”. BBC News. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-24146572. Visited June 2015.
Ó Catháin, Leachlain S.
Ó Flannagáin, Micheál
Office for Criminal Justice Reform
2007 “National Agreement on Arrangements for the Use of Interpreters, Translators and Language Service Professionals in Investigations and Proceedings within the Criminal Justice System”. http://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/courts/interpreters/National_Agreement_on_Use_of_Interpreters-August_2008.pdf. Visited May 2014.
2009 “Memorandum Submitted by the Office for Criminal Justice Reform”. http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm200809/cmselect/cmjust/313/313we02.htm. Visited June 2015.
Office for National Statistics
2013a “Language in England and Wales, 2011”. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_302179.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2013b Table QS204EW. “2011 Census: Main Language (Detailed). Local Authorities in England and Wales”. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/key-statistics-and-quick-statistics-for-wards-and-output-areas-in-england-and-wales/rft-qs204ew.xls. Visited June 2015.
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
2010 “Minority rights: International Standards and Guidance for Implementation”. Geneva and New York: United Nations. www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/MinorityRights_en.pdf. Visited June 2015.
Oliveras Jané, Neus
2001 “The Main Concepts in the Recognition of Linguistic Rights in European States”. Working Paper No. 2. Leeuwarden: Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning.
O’Rourke, Bernardette and Pedro Castillo
2015 “Karnataka Schools Set to Take Language Policy to Court”. The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Karnataka-schools-set-to-take-language-policy-to-court-policy/articleshow/46790948.cms. Visited June 2015.
Perez, Isabelle A. and Christine W.L. Wilson
2009 “A TCIS Model from Scotland: A Profile of Translation, Interpreting, and Communication Support in the Public Services in Scotland”. Interpreting and Translating in Public Service Settings: Policy, Practice, Pedagogy ed. by Raquel de Pedro Ricoy, Isabelle A. Perez and Christine W.L. Wilson, 8–32.
Phillips, John D.
Phillipson, Robert, Mart Rannut
2013 “Translation into Foreign Languages”. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/translation-into-foreign-languages. Visited June 2015.
Plain English Campaign
2016 “Councils with Crystal Marks”. http://www.plainenglish.co.uk/services/crystal-mark/crystal-mark-holders/875-councils-with-crystal-marks.html. Visited January 2016.
Pöchhacker, Franz and Kadric, Mira
Public Accounts Committee
2012 “The Ministry of Justice’s Language Service Contract”. London: The Stationery Office. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201213/cmselect/cmpubacc/620/62002.htm. Visited June 2015.
2012 “Translation as an Instrument for Multilingual Democracy”. http://usuaris.tinet.cat/apym//on-line/translation/2012_arizona_multilingual.pdf. Visited June 2015.
Pym, Anthony, Kirsten Malmkjær and María del Mar Gutiérrez-Colón Plana
Quan, Kelvin and Jessica Lynch
2010 “The High Costs of Language Barriers in Medical Malpractice”. Los Angeles and Washington, DC and Carrboro: National Health Law Program. http://www.healthlaw.org/issues/health-disparities/language-access/the-high-costs-of-language-barriers-in-medical-malpractice. Visited June 2015.
Racial Equality Forum
2008 “Best Practice Guidelines on the Use of Interpreters”. Belfast: Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister. http://www.belfastcity.gov.uk/migrants/docs/interpretersguidelines.doc. Visited May 2014.
2009 “Best Practice Guidelines on the Use of Translation”. Belfast: Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister http://www.equalityni.org/archive/word/DevelopingBestPracticeGuidelinesontheuseofTranslationv4.doc. Visited May 2014.
Réaume, Denise G.
Réaume, Denise G. and Meital Pinto
2012 “Access to Justice: A Necessity in Times of Fiscal Consolidation”. Paper presented at the 40th Conference of the European Bars and Law Societies , Vienna, February 2012. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/12/111andformat=HTMLandaged=0andlanguage=ENandguiLanguage=en. Visited June 2015.
Reynolds, Thomas H. and Arturo A. Flores
Richter, Dagmar, Ingo Richter, Reetta Toivanen and Iryna Ulasiuk
Toshiyuki Takagaki and Maiko Kimura. 2013. “Minority Languages in Multicultural Japan: Improvement of Language Assistance for Non-Japanese Residents”. Paper presented at the Applied Linguistics Association of Korea 2013 International Conference , Busan, October 2013.
2013 “A New Protestant Beginning for the Irish Language in Belfast”. Public Radio International. http://www.theworld.org/2013/04/a-new-protestant-beginning-for-the-irish-language-in-belfast/. Visited June 2015.
Table DC2119SC – Language Other than English Used at Home by Sex by Age”. http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/. Visited June 2015.
Scots Language Centre
2014 “The Main Dialects of Scots”. http://www.scotslanguage.com/Scots_Dialects_uid117/The_Main_Dialects_of_Scots. Visited June 2015.
Scottish Legal Aid Board
2011 Articles. http://www.slab.org.uk/news/archive/articles/news-0055.html. Visited June 2015.
Scottish Translation, Interpreting and Communication Forum
2004 “Good Practice Guidelines”. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/47210/0025542.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2005 “Electoral Franchise: Who can Vote?”. London: Parliament and Constitution Centre. http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/research/notes-on-parliament-and-constitution/. Visited June 2015.
2012 “Energy Firm Threatens Welsh Bills Hike over Language Concerns”. Wales Online. http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/energy-firm-threatens-welsh-bills-2020298. Visited June 2015.
Slomanson, William R.
Smyth, Anne and Michael Montgomery
2006 “Translating, Interpreting and Communication Support: A Review of Provision in Public Services in Scotland”. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/90506/0021781.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2009 “Audit of Current Scots Language Provision in Scotland”. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/258124/0076555.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2010 “Public Attitudes towards the Scots Language”. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2010/01/06105123/9. Visited June 2015.
Statistics for Wales
2013 “Welsh Speakers by Local Authority, Gender and Detailed Age Groups, 2011 Census”. https://statswales.wales.gov.uk/Catalogue/Welsh-Language/WelshSpeakers-by-LocalAuthority-Gender-DetailedAgeGroups-2011Census. Visited June 2015.
2014 “President Nazarbayev on Language Policy and Ukraine”. http://en.tengrinews.kz/politics_sub/President-Nazarbayev-on-language-policy-and-Ukraine-255663/. Visited June 2015.
Ter Haar, Beryl P.
2009 “The Growing Potential Integration Capacity of the Acquis of the European Social Model”. European Integration online Papers 13:26. http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/2009-026a.htm. Visited June 2015.
2013 “Reparar el silencio: Justicia para los daños lingüísticos causados por colonización y conflicto”. Revista de Derecho Público 31. 2–39. http://derechopublico.uniandes.edu.co/components/com_revista/archivos/derechopub/pub395.pdf. Visited June 2015.
Tunger, Verena, Clare Mar-Molinero, Darren Paffey, Dick Vigers and Baróg
1999 “Report Submitted by the United Kingdom Pursuant to Article 25, Paragraph 1 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities”. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/minorities/3_FCNMdocs/PDF_1st_SR_UK_en.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2002 “Initial Periodical Report Presented to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe in Accordance with Article 15 of the Charter”. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/minlang/Report/PeriodicalReports/UKPR1_en.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2009 “Third Periodical Report Presented to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe in Accordance with Article 15 of the Charter”. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/minlang/Report/PeriodicalReports/UKPR3_en.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2013 “Fourth Periodical Report Presented to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe in Accordance with Article 15 of the Charter”. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/minlang/Report/PeriodicalReports/UKPR4_en.pdf. Visited June 2015.
Urrutia Libarona, Iñigo
2012 “Article 13: Economic and Social Life”. Shaping Language Rights: Commentary on the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Light of the Committee Of Experts’ Evaluation ed. by Alba Nogueira López, Eduardo J. Ruiz Vieytez and Iñigo Urrutia Libarona, 455–484. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
2015 “U.S. English Applauds Sen. Jim Inhofe‘s (R-Oklahoma) Decision to Re-introduce the English Language Unity Act”. http://us-english.org/view/1007. Visited June 2015.
Van Avermaet, Piet
Van Parijs, Philippe
Vila i Moreno, Xavier
Weinstock, Daniel M.
2010 “Minister Launches Wales Interpretation and Translation Service”. http://wales.gov.uk/newsroom/socialjustice/2010/101013wits/?lang=en. Visited May 2014.
2011 “A Living Language: A Language for Living”. http://wales.gov.uk/docs/dcells/publications/122902wls201217en.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2012 “More than Just Words”. http://wales.gov.uk/docs/dhss/publications/121121narrativeen.pdf. Visited June 2015.
Welsh Language Board
2012 “The Commissioner’s Report to Merthyr Tydfil County Borough Council Published under Section 19 of the Welsh Language Act 1993”. http://www.comisiynyddygymraeg.org/English/Publications%20List/201208%20DG%20S%20investigation%20report%20%28final%29.pdf. Visited June 2015.
Welsh Language Commissioner
2012 “Advice Document: Bilingual Drafting, Translation and Interpretation”. http://www.comisiynyddygymraeg.org/English/Publications%20List/20120504%20DG%20S%20Cyngor%20Cyfieithu%20a%20Drafftio%20Dwyieithog%20(1).pdf. Visited June 2015.
2013 “Primary Care through the Medium of Welsh in Wales: Terms of Reference for the Commissioner’s Inquiry”. http://www.comisiynyddygymraeg.org/English/Publications%20List/Health%20Inquiry%20Terms%20of%20Reference.pdf. Visited June 2015.
2014 “My Language, My Health: The Welsh Language Commissioner’s Inquiry into the Welsh Language in Primary Care”. http://www.comisiynyddygymraeg.org/English/Publications%20List/Health%20inquiry%20full%20report.pdf. Visited June 2015.
Welsh Language Officer
2015 “Welsh Language Annual Report 2014/15”. Abercynon: Cwm Taf University Health Board. http://www.cwmtafuhb.wales.nhs.uk/opendoc/265673. Visited June 2015.
Williams, Colin H.
Working with Diversity
2012 “Interpreters”. http://www.workingwithdiversity.org/div/racialgroup/interpreters.php. Visited May 2015.
Wouters, Jan, Dominic Coppens and Dylan Geraets
2011 “The influence of General Principles of Law”. Working Papers No. 70. Leuven: Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies.
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